STATED RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PARKING PRICING STRATEGIES FOR TRAVEL DEMAND MANAGEMENT (TDM)
This study assesses Travel Demand Management (TDM) which include providing limited parking space and increasing the parking charge as a strategy to reduce traffic circulation and congestion in Satok Commercial Centre in Kuching City, Malaysia. The aim of this study is to explore the travel pattern behaviours by encouraging people to change their choice of travel mode and time without reducing the number of commuting to come to the commercial centre using Stated Preference (SP) technique. Stated responses to parking pricing scenarios were obtained from a survey sample of 2000 commuters in the Satok Commercial Centre, Kuching City area. This study employed a mode choice modeling analysis to examine the relationship between the independent variables (parking price and time to search parking) and the dependent variables (choice of respondent whether not to change their travel behaviour, change their destination, shift mode to public transport, change the time of their trip or cancel their trip). The findings showed that for every trip purpose, parking price and time to find the parking space reflect the decision or travel pattern behaviour for most of the respondents. The main result of this study shows that most of the respondents prefer to choose shift mode and time of their trip in scenario II and III for the trip purpose such as working, shopping and leisure activities which result in the positive changes. For scenario IV and V, the result shows the negative changes where the respondents choose to change destination and cancel their trip. Parking policy variables that play a crucial part in mode choice decisions for travellers are the parking charge and time needed to find parking. The results suggest that by increasing the charge of parking and limiting parking space will reduce the traffic congestion. However, they may also have a negative effect on the vitality of the commercial centre.